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  รู้จักประโยชน์ของ Rice Bran Oil กันเถอะ / น้ำมันรำข้าว

Relatively little research is reported in the scientific literature specifically regarding the potential benefits of including rice bran oil in animal diets. Most rice bran oil feeding studies involving animals have been designed to investigate the effects of rice bran oil upon human health by use of model systems. Such studies have utilized a wide range of animal species including other primates, hamsters, pigs, and rodents. Although not an objective of those studies, trial results indicate that rice bran oil and its constituents may provide opportunities in the care of pets and other animals. 

As illustrated in various technical papers cited elsewhere on this website, rice bran oil and its derivatives offer several opportunities  in the form of desirable functional properties. Through further study, combined with RITO’s knowledge of rice bran oil processing and fractions, products could likely be developed to capitalize upon these properties to improve animal nutrition and health. Brief discussions of these functional properties and their potential roles in animal care are provided below. 

Antioxidants
Rice bran oil contains several components that exhibit antioxidant properties. These include gamma-oryzanol, tocotrienols, tocopherols, and squalene. Through the use of selective refining and fractionation techniques, rice bran oil and concentrates may be produced to optimize composition for specific applications. Examples include: 

Refined rice bran oil that retains much of its naturally-occurring Vitamin E activity 
Refined rice bran oil that retains 1% gamma-oryzanol 
Concentrated natural antioxidant to extend pet food shelf life 
Concentrated natural antioxidant to provide health benefits associated with dietary intake of antioxidants 

Growth / Muscle Development
Some believe that specific components of gamma-oryzanol promote the development of lean muscle mass, and a crystallized form has been sold to body-builders for that purpose. By analogy, then, it would seem to potentially offer a method of accelerating weight gain and increasing lean to fat ratios in cattle or other animals produced for meat. We must caution, however, that results of scientific studies designed to investigate this property are inconclusive, at best.

Cardiovascular Health
Minor constituents in rice bran oil, particularly gamma-oryzanol, tocotrienols, and tocopherols, have been shown in numerous laboratory animal and human studies to provide benefits to the cardiovascular system. Investigators have noted that these constituents are not only effective in reducing harmful LDL serum cholesterol, but they also appear to play a role in reducing plaque build-up on artery walls. Inclusion of these constituents in high-end pet diets should be considered.

Physical Performance / Stamina
Improvements in physical endurance and stamina among athletes have been attributed to the consumption of concentrated forms of gamma-oryzanol (likely related to reported effects on growth and lean muscle development discussed above). This suggests that similar benefits may be achieved through supplementing the diet of animals used in competitive sports with gamma-oryzanol. As before, however, findings from scientific studies of which we are aware have yielded mixed results.

UV Light Absorption / Inhibition
Gamma-oryzanol is effective in absorbing ultraviolet light, thereby inhibiting a number of adverse effects attributed to exposure to sunlight. A number of sunscreen formulations incorporating oryzanol have been developed and marketed for human use. The use of high-oryzanol rice bran oil (1% oryzanol) and oryzanol concentrate should be considered in formulations for the protection of animal coats.

Anti-Cancer Activity
A number of minor components in rice bran oil have been found, through controlled studies with laboratory animals, to exhibit anti-cancer activity. This property may be particularly valuable in the production of high-end, health-enhancing pet foods. 

Fatty Acid Source
The fatty acid composition of rice bran oil is well documented. As  with humans, a number of fatty acids are required in animal diets. It appears that rice bran oil is roughly equal to other vegetable oils in supplying fatty acid requirements. In consideration of this and the other properties described above, rice bran oil has much to offer in caring for nutritional and health needs of pets and other animals.


NOTE: Due diligence has been taken to insure that the above is accurate and reliable, but it is provided as information only. RITO and its principals assume no liability for performance in specific customer applications. U.S. or other patents may apply in some cases. User is solely responsible for insuring against infringement. 






Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil in Functional Foods Development
J. Samuel Godber, Zhimin Xu, Maren Hegsted and Terry Walker 

Zhimin Xu uses a high performance liquid chromatograph for analyzing components of rice bran oil including oryzanol, which has been of particular interest in functional food development.

Rice bran and its oil contain large concentrations of several compounds that could potentially prevent chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer. The LSU AgCenter has been actively engaged in identifying, extracting, purifying and evaluating the functionality of several of these compounds. The focus has been on vitamin E, especially the tocotrienols, and oryzanol, which contains a high proportion of phytosterols. Recent efforts have included an evaluation of the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide as a more appropriate extraction medium, use of cell culture to evaluate cellular antioxidant activity, and an evaluation of the potential of oryzanol to reduce bone loss in rats whose ovaries had been removed as a model of postmenopausal women.

Functional foods are defined as foods, or food components, that provide health benefits beyond their nutritional value. Functional foods may reduce chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease or cancer. One of the most well-recognized functional foods is garlic, which has been found to reduce serum cholesterol and possibly prevent certain types of cancer. Oat bran, soy protein and red wine are also viewed as functional foods, to name just a few. For several years, ongoing research in the LSU AgCenter has focused on rice bran as a potential human food ingredient.

Rice bran and antioxidants 
Our initial studies with rice bran focused on stabilizing it against lipid degradation that leads to flavor problems. During these studies, we realized rice bran had high levels of both tocopherols and tocotrienols, which comprise vitamin E and act as antioxidants in our body, and also had high levels of a mixture of compounds referred to collectively as oryzanol. Oryzanol components are complex compounds that can act as an antioxidant and can improve solubility in cell membranes and potentially lower cholesterol by competitive inhibition of absorption and synthesis. Our recent efforts have focused on recovery of these compounds from rice bran, especially oryzanol.

Conditions were optimized for the extraction of oryzanol using a process called supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide as an extraction solvent. This state-of-the-art extraction process has been suggested as a means to obtain high-value functional components from low-value agricultural byproducts such as rice bran. We demonstrated the viability of this approach because we were able to obtain a highly concentrated extract 
of oryzanol. We now have a pilot scale extractor that will allow us to scale up the extraction process to demonstrate the commercial potential of this approach.

To evaluate individual components of the oryzanol mixture, we employed a sophisticated separation process using a preparative scale chromatograph. We were able to purify the three major fractions of oryzanol: cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate and campesteryl ferulate. Separation conditions were developed that would permit economical purification of these three components. 

Rice bran components reduce cholesterol oxidation 
The possibility that rice bran components could reduce the effects of oxidation both in food and in our bodies is one of the most exciting aspects of rice bran as a functional food. The causes associated with almost all chronic disease can be traced to the effects of oxidants, both in the environment, including food, and in our bodies. Cholesterol oxidation products have been suggested as a major cause of heart disease. The antioxidant activities of four of the vitamin E and three oryzanol components purified from rice bran were investigated in a chemical model of cholesterol oxidation. All components exhibited significant antioxidant activity in the inhibition of cholesterol oxidation. All three oryzanol components were higher than any of the four vitamin E components. 

A second approach to the potential effect of these components on oxidation 
and cholesterol dynamics has been initiated using cell culture techniques. Cell membrane integrity of living cells was used to test the protective effect of oryzanol compared with the vitamin E component alpha-tocopherol against an oxidizing agent. Oryzanol was found to maintain greater cell survival than alpha-tocopherol, and both were considerably higher than the untreated control. 



Rice bran and osteoporosis 
Osteoporosis affects more than 20 million older Americans, with the number increasing every year. This bone loss can be greatly reduced with hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women. Unfortunately, many women do not to use hormones because of side effects such as increased risk for cancer. This has led to great interest in identifying functional foods that can reduce bone loss naturally.

Ovariectomized rats are used as a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis and typically lose substantial bone mineral density after an ovariectomy. The addition of a 7 percent oryzanol rice bran oil concentrate to the diets 
of ovariectomized rats was slightly protective in reducing bone loss at several bone sites. This protective effect was strongest for the tibia, where the bone density was 5 percent greater for rats fed rice bran oil concentrate than the control rats. The beneficial effect of the rice bran oil concentrate appeared to be primarily on cortical bone in the long bones, not on the trabecular bone in vertebra. Crystalline oryzanol and crystalline oryzanol dissolved in corn 
oil had no effect on bone mineral density. This suggests that either the oryzanol as it occurs naturally in rice bran oil is more biologically active than crystalline oryzanol or that something else in the rice bran oil is affecting bone density positively.

Rice bran as a functional food
Rice bran and its oil may be among the most important sources of functional food components available in the world today, considering rice bran’s vast worldwide production and the fact that it is poorly used for human food consumption. Our efforts are revealing potential functional applications for rice bran in human foods. The importance of these efforts is becoming more critical because of the introduction to U.S. markets of margarine and other products, such as Benecol, containing compounds reputed to lower serum cholesterol that are similar to the oryzanol components under study. 

Thus, the establishment of the therapeutic potential for specific oryzanol components could lend credence to similar applications with rice bran oil or concentrates.

The potential role of rice bran components in bone health is a critical area of research and expands our potential for reducing osteoporosis with functional foods. More study is needed to identify the active elements in rice bran oil beneficial in reducing bone loss and determine their mode of action. The rice bran oil concentrate appears to act primarily on preserving the slow turn-over cortical bone in the long bones. Other functional foods such as soy protein act on the rapid turnover trabecular bone in vertebrae. This leads to the possibility that the two in combination could provide even greater bone benefits in preserving both cortical and trabecular bone in the elderly to reduce osteoporotic fractures. 


Rice Bran Oil 
Frequently Asked Questions 

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What is rice bran oil? 
When rice is processed for human consumption, the hull surrounding the kernel is first removed, leaving brown rice. The brown color is due to the bran layers on the kernel. Brown rice is usually further processed to remove the bran layers to give white rice and rice bran. The rice bran is heated and formed into pellets. Oil is extracted, leaving rice bran oil and defatted rice bran. 

How is rice bran oil traditionally used? 
Rice bran oil has been used for many years in Japanese cooking. Research in humans and laboratory animals has shown that rice bran oil may lower cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of heart attacks. 

Why is rice bran oil useful for horses? 
Firstly, rice bran oil is useful for adding sheen to the hair coat. Secondly, it is very high in digestible energy and will add calories to the diet without bulk. Additionally, crude rice bran oil contains high levels of natural antioxidants, such as gamma-oryzanol and various forms of vitamin E. Vitamin E helps protect cell membranes, improves immune function and prevents muscle soreness, inflammation and "tying-up" in horses. Crude rice bran oil is the natural source of gamma-oryzanol. Besides having an antioxidative function, gamma-oryzanol may also reduce the incidence or severity of gastric ulcers and is claimed to have "body building" effects. 

When should rice bran oil be fed? 
Rice bran oil should be fed to performance horses (endurance horses, 3-day eventers, racehorses, horses in training, etc.), when preparing horses for sale or to improve hair coat condition. Rice bran oil is also excellent for putting weight on horses, especially those that are unable or unwilling to consume more feed. 

How much rice bran oil should be fed? 
Two to eight fluid ounces of rice bran oil should be top-dressed on feed daily for an average-size riding horse (1200 lb). With two fluid ounces of oil, improvements can be seen in the hair coat. Two fluid ounces of rice bran oil also provide about 1000 mg of gamma-oryzanol, an amount similar to many equine "body building" products. Four fluid ounces of oil can produce significant weight gain. Eight fluid ounces will provide maximum benefits to the hair coat and noticeable weight gain. More can be added for additional weight gain. As a general rule of good feeding practices, the oil should be introduced gradually. 

Are there any side effects of feeding rice bran oil? Can I overfeed rice bran oil? 
Rice bran oil is safe to feed. No adverse effects have been found from feeding rice bran oil. If overfed however, the horse may become obese since the oil is rich in calories. As with any oil, feeding too much may result in loose stools. 


What are the advantages of rice bran oil over other vegetable oils, such as corn oil? 
Rice bran oil offers an alternative for horses refusing to eat other vegetable oils. Like corn oil, rice bran oil is excellent for sales- prepping horses, improving hair coat condition and adding calories to the diet. Unlike other vegetable oils, rice bran oil naturally contains high levels of lecithins and vitamin E and provides the natural source of gamma-oryzanol. 


Why does crude rice bran oil need to be shaken while other vegetable oils do not? 
Crude rice bran oil naturally contains gums and waxes. Being heavier than oil, these gums and waxes will settle. Most of the lecithins and gamma-oryzanol are in this separated fraction. Simply shaking the oil will remix these compounds. 

Once the seal has been broken, how long will the rice bran oil stay fresh? 
We recommend the oil be used within 2 months of breaking the seal. 

Since Rice Bran Oil contains three different kinds of natural antioxidants -- namely Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and Oryzanol -- some of the major antioxidant companies have recently switched their basic oil to rice bran oil. This movement shows that the industry leaders recognize rice bran oil's oxidative stability. 

For a long time, there has been a tradition in Japan that women rub rice bran in or put rice bran oil on their face to keep their skin smooth. These women, having smooth and shiny skin, are called "Nuka-Bijin" ("Bran Beauty" in English). It is a tradition and people don't know the real reason why rice bran or rice bran oil is effective in keeping skin smooth but it is thought that it relates to the functions of minor components of the Rice Bran Oil. The oryzanol, for example, can impede the progress of melanin pigmentation by restraining the eryhema activity of tyrosinase as it intercepts the ultraviolet rays at the skin's surface and hinders its (ultraviolet rays) transmission, and because of this, rice bran oil is used in sunscreen products and hair conditioners. Also, rice bran oil is used in lipsticks and finger nail polish since it holds the stick well and has a smooth spreadability. Rice bran oil is being used as an ingredient in cosmetics, and this market in the U.S. is growing remarkably.


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