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สาระข่าวสารความรู้เรื่องสุขภาพ
การตรวจวินิจฉัยโรคทางแล็ป

ไขมันในเลือด Cholesterol ,
   Triglyceride , HDL , LDL
 

What Do My Cholesterol 
   Levels Mean?
   การแปรผลของระดับไขมันเรา
How Does Cholesterol
  Cause Heart Disease?


ชนิดของไขมันในร่างกาย
ชนิดของไลโปโปรตีน
โคเลสเตอรอลในเลือดมีกี่ชนิด
ไขมันในเลือดผิดปกติมีผล
  อย่างไรต่อสุขภาพของเรา
ภาวะไขมันในเลือดสูงกว่าปกติ 
  (Hyperilipidemia) กับโรค
  ที่พบได้บ่อย

การรักษาไขมันในเลือดผิดปกติ

ภาวะระดับไขมันในเลือดผิดปกติ   
  (dyslipidemia)

ไขมันในอาหาร และ กรดไขมัน
Cholesterol and Fatty Acid


Test strip แถบตรวจ กลูโคส 
  / โคเลสเตอรอล/ ไตรกลีเซอไรด์ 
  จากเลือดปลายนิ้ว
Cholesterol management

Understanding Cholesterol
ความรู้และเข้าใจเรื่องโคเลสเตอรอล

  
 
 วิธีทดสอบ/วินิจฉัยทางแล็ป
 
     ( ห้องปฏิบัติการชันสูตร ) 
   
Reference test procedure
 
โรคและกลุ่มอาการที่สนใจ
     และสอบถามรายละเอียดมาก

    - โรคของนักธุรกิจ
    - โรคที่ไม่ติดต่อ
    - โรคของผู้สูงอายุ
    - การดูแลเมื่อเข้าสู่วัยทอง
ิ    - ปัญหาและการเปลี่ยนไต
   อื่นๆอีกมากมาย ที่น่าติดตาม    
  


 

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  ไขมันในเลือด Cholesterol , triglyceride , HDL , LDL       

What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

Since high blood cholesterol signals a higher risk of heart attack, it’s important to have your cholesterol levels checked regularly and discuss them with your doctor. Your doctor will test your total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol and will tell you about these readings. You may also ask your doctor to tell you about your LDL and triglyceride readings, if these were taken.

Taking a small blood sample from a finger is one common way that cholesterol levels can be measured.

What should my total cholesterol level be?
Total Blood Cholesterol Levels:
(mg/dL means milligrams per deciliter of blood)

Total Cholesterol Level

Category

Less than 200 mg/dL

Desirable level that puts you at lower risk for heart disease. A cholesterol level of 200 mg/dL or higher raises your risk.

200-239 mg/dL

Borderline high

240 mg/dL and above

High blood cholesterol. A person with this level has more than twice the risk of heart disease as someone whose cholesterol is below 200 mg/dL.

What should my HDL-cholesterol level be?
HDL stands for high density lipoprotein. HDL is considered "good" cholesterol because it seems to protect you from heart attack. That means that unlike other cholesterol levels the higher your HDL, the better.

You can raise your HDL by quitting smoking, losing excess weight and being more active. Drinking alcohol also helps raise HDL, but since alcohol can cause other problems, don't start drinking or drink more to raise your HDL. Make healthy lifestyle changes to raise your HDL and reduce your risk of heart attack.

HDL Cholesterol Levels:
(milligrams per deciliter of blood = mg/dL)

HDL Cholesterol Level

Category

Less than 40 mg/dL

A major risk factor for heart disease.
40-59 mg/dL

The higher your HDL level, the better.

60 mg/dL and above An HDL of 60 mg/dL and above is considered protective against heart disease.

What should my LDL-cholesterol level be?
LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. This is the main carrier of harmful cholesterol in your blood. A high level of LDL means there's a higher risk of heart disease.

LDL Cholesterol Levels:
(milligrams per deciliter of blood = mg/dL)

LDL Cholesterol Level

Category

Less than 100 mg/dL Optimal
100-129 mg/dL

Near or above optimal

130-159 mg/dL Borderline high
160-189 mg/dL High
190 mg/dL and above

Very high

What should my triglyceride level be?
Most of your body fat comes in the form of triglycerides. Butter, margarine and vegetable oil are triglycerides, too. High triglyceride levels can result from being overweight, drinking a lot of alcohol, or having diabetes or other disorders. It’s no clear yet whether triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease or not.

Triglyceride Level

Category

Less than 150 mg/dL Normal
150-199 mg/dL

Borderline high

200-499 mg/dL High
500 mg/dL Very high

My Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels
Use the chart below to keep track of your cholesterol and triglyceride levels each time you have a test. Make sure you discuss these numbers with your doctor.

My Goal   1st Visit 2nd Visit 3rd Visit
Total blood cholesterol level Less than
200 mg/dL






 
HDL cholesterol level Greater than
40 mg/dL






 
LDL cholesterol level* Less than
130 mg/dL






 
Triglyceride level Less than
150 mg/dL






 
*Less than 100 mg/dL if you have had a heart attack.

How can I learn more?

  • If you have heart disease, members of your family also may be at higher risk. It's very important for them to make changes now to lower their risk.


How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease?

When there is too much cholesterol (a fat-like substance) in your blood, it builds up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup causes "hardening of the arteries" so that arteries become narrowed and blood flow to the heart is slowed down or blocked. The blood carries oxygen to the heart, and if enough blood and oxygen cannot reach your heart, you may suffer chest pain. If the blood supply to a portion of the heart is completely cut off by a blockage, the result is a heart attack.

High blood cholesterol itself does not cause symptoms, so many people are unaware that their cholesterol level is too high. It is important to find out what your cholesterol numbers are because lowering cholesterol levels that are too high lessens the risk for developing heart disease and reduces the chance of a heart attack or dying of heart disease, even if you already have it. Cholesterol lowering is important for everyone--younger, middle age, and older adults; women and men; and people with or without heart disease.

What Do Your Cholesterol Numbers Mean?

Everyone age 20 and older should have their cholesterol measured at least once every 5 years. It is best to have a blood test called a "lipoprotein profile" to find out your cholesterol numbers. This blood test is done after a 9- to 12-hour fast and gives information about your:

  • Total cholesterol
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol--the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol--helps keep cholesterol from building up in the arteries
  • Triglycerides--another form of fat in your blood

If it is not possible to get a lipoprotein profile done, knowing your total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol can give you a general idea about your cholesterol levels. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL* or more or if your HDL is less than 40 mg/dL, you will need to have a lipoprotein profile done. See how your cholesterol numbers compare to the tables below.

Total Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 200 mg/dL Desirable
200-239 mg/dL Borderline High
240 mg/dL and above High

* Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood.



LDL Cholesterol Level LDL-Cholesterol Category
Less than 100 mg/dL Optimal
100-129 mg/dL Near optimal/above optimal
130-159 mg/dL Borderline high
160-189 mg/dL High
190 mg/dL and above Very high

HDL (good) cholesterol protects against heart disease, so for HDL, higher numbers are better. A level less than 40 mg/dL is low and is considered a major risk factor because it increases your risk for developing heart disease. HDL levels of 60 mg/dL or more help to lower your risk for heart disease.

Triglycerides can also raise heart disease risk. Levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more) may need treatment in some people.

What Affects Cholesterol Levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are things you can do something about:

Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level go up. Saturated fat is the main culprit, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat and cholesterol in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level.

Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL and total cholesterol levels, as well as raise your HDL and lower your triglyceride levels.

Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.

Things you cannot do anything about also can affect cholesterol levels. These include:

Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women's LDL levels tend to rise.

Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.

What Is Your Risk of Developing Heart Disease or Having a Heart Attack?

In general, the higher your LDL level and the more risk factors you have (other than LDL), the greater your chances of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Some people are at high risk for a heart attack because they already have heart disease. Other people are at high risk for developing heart disease because they have diabetes (which is a strong risk factor) or a combination of risk factors for heart disease. Follow these steps to find out your risk for developing heart disease.

Step 1: Check the table below to see how many of the listed risk factors you have; these are the risk factors that affect your LDL goal.

Major Risk Factors That Affect Your LDL Goal

  • Cigarette smoking
  • High Blood Pressure (140/90 mmHg or higher or on blood pressure medication)
  • Low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL)*
  • Family history of early heart disease (heart disease in father or brother before age 55; heart disease in mother or sister before age 65)
  • Age (men 45 years or older; women 55 years or older)

* If your HDL cholesterol is 60 mg/dL or higher, subtract 1 from your total count.

Even though obesity and physical inactivity are not counted in this list, they are conditions that need to be corrected.

Step 2: How many major risk factors do you have? If you have 2 or more risk factors in the table above, use the attached risk scoring tables (which include your cholesterol levels) to find your risk score. Risk score refers to the chance of having a heart attack in the next 10 years, given as a percentage. My risk score is ________%.

Step 3: Use your medical history, number of risk factors, and risk score to find your risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack in the table below.

If You Have You Are in Category
Heart disease, diabetes, or risk score more than 20%*   I. Highest Risk
2 or more risk factors and risk score 10-20% II. Next Highest Risk
2 or more risk factors and risk score less than 10% III. Moderate Risk
0 or 1 risk factor IV. Low-to-Moderate Risk

* Means that more than 20 out of 100 people in this category will have a heart attack within 10 years.

My risk category is ______________________.

Treating High Cholesterol

The main goal of cholesterol-lowering treatment is to lower your LDL level enough to reduce your risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. The higher your risk, the lower your LDL goal will be. To find your LDL goal, see the boxes below for your risk category. There are two main ways to lower your cholesterol:

Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)--includes a cholesterol-lowering diet (called the TLC diet), physical activity, and weight management. TLC is for anyone whose LDL is above goal.

Drug Treatment--if cholesterol-lowering drugs are needed, they are used together with TLC treatment to help lower your LDL.

If you are in...

  • Category I, Highest Risk, your LDL goal is less than 100 mg/dL. If your LDL is 100 or above, you will need to begin the TLC diet. If your LDL is 130 or higher, you will need to start drug treatment at the same time as the TLC diet. If your LDL is 100 to 129, you may also need to start drug treatment together with the TLC diet. Even if your LDL is below 100, you should follow the TLC diet on your own to keep your LDL as low as possible.

  • Category II, Next Highest Risk, your LDL goal is less than 130 mg/dL. If your LDL is 130 mg/dL or above, you will need to begin treatment with the TLC diet. If your LDL is 130 mg/dL or more after 3 months on the TLC diet, you may need drug treatment along with the TLC diet. If your LDL is less than 130 mg/dL, you will need to follow the heart-healthy diet for all Americans, which allows a little more saturated fat and cholesterol than the TLC diet.

  • Category III, Moderate Risk, your LDL goal is less than 130 mg/dL. If your LDL is 130 mg/dL or above, you will need to begin the TLC diet. If your LDL is 160 mg/dL or more after you have tried the TLC diet for 3 months, you may need drug treatment along with the TLC diet. If your LDL is less than 130 mg/dL, you will need to follow the heart-healthy diet for all Americans.

  • Category IV, Low-to-Moderate Risk, your LDL goal is less than 160 mg/dL. If your LDL is 160 mg/dL or above, you will need to begin the TLC diet. If your LDL is still 160 mg/dL or more after 3 months on the TLC diet, you may need drug treatment along with the TLC diet to lower your LDL, especially if your LDL is 190 mg/dL or more. If your LDL is less than 160 mg/dL, you will need to follow the heart-healthy diet for all Americans.

To reduce your risk for heart disease or keep it low, it is very important to control any other risk factors you may have such as high blood pressure and smoking.

Lowering Cholesterol With Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)

TLC is a set of things you can do to help lower your LDL cholesterol. The main parts of TLC are:

  • The TLC Diet. This is a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol eating plan that calls for less than 7% of calories from saturated fat and less than 200 mg of dietary cholesterol per day. The TLC diet recommends only enough calories to maintain a desirable weight and avoid weight gain. If your LDL is not lowered enough by reducing your saturated fat and cholesterol intakes, the amount of soluble fiber in your diet can be increased. Certain food products that contain plant stanols or plant sterols (for example, cholesterol-lowering margarines and salad dressings) can also be added to the TLC diet to boost its LDL-lowering power.

  • Weight Management. Losing weight if you are overweight can help lower LDL and is especially important for those with a cluster of risk factors that includes high triglyceride and/or low HDL levels and being overweight with a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women).

  • Physical Activity. Regular physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days) is recommended for everyone. It can help raise HDL and lower LDL and is especially important for those with high triglyceride and/or low HDL levels who are overweight with a large waist measurement.

Foods low in saturated fat include fat free or 1% dairy products, lean meats, fish, skinless poultry, whole grain foods, and fruits and vegetables. Look for soft margarines (liquid or tub varieties) that are low in saturated fat and contain little or no trans fat (another type of dietary fat that can raise your cholesterol level). Limit foods high in cholesterol such as liver and other organ meats, egg yolks, and full-fat dairy products.

Good sources of soluble fiber include oats, certain fruits (such as oranges and pears) and vegetables (such as brussels sprouts and carrots), and dried peas and beans.


Drug Treatment

Even if you begin drug treatment to lower your cholesterol, you will need to continue your treatment with lifestyle changes. This will keep the dose of medicine as low as possible, and lower your risk in other ways as well. There are several types of drugs available for cholesterol lowering including statins, bile acid sequestrants, nicotinic acid, and fibric acids. Your doctor can help decide which type of drug is best for you. The statin drugs are very effective in lowering LDL levels and are safe for most people. Bile acid sequestrants also lower LDL and can be used alone or in combination with statin drugs. Nicotinic acid lowers LDL and triglycerides and raises HDL. Fibric acids lower LDL somewhat but are used mainly to treat high triglyceride and low HDL levels.

Once your LDL goal has been reached, your doctor may prescribe treatment for high triglycerides and/or a low HDL level, if present. The treatment includes losing weight if needed, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and possibly taking a drug.

Resources
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

NIH Publication No. 01-3290


 

  

 
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