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 Human Growth Hormone

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  Human Growth Hormone      

What is Human Growth Hormone?
Issue: November 16, 2000
Produced by H.F.R.

Human Growth Hormone is one of several endocrine hormones, like estrogen, progesterone, testosterone and DHEA, that decline in production as we age. While many of these hormones can be replaced to deter some of the effects of aging, growth hormone goes far beyond the effect of any one of these hormones to not only retard biological aging, but also to significantly reverse many of the effects of aging. Researchers have proven growth hormone therapy can reverse the biological effects of aging by as much as 20 years with less than one year of treatment.

Human growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. It is produced at a rate that peaks during adolescence when accelerated growth occurs. Growth hormone secretion decreases with age in every animal species tested thus far. In humans, the amount of growth hormone after age 30 declines about 14% per decade, so that total daily growth hormone production is reduced dramatically with age. In numerical values, we produce on a daily basis about 500 micrograms of growth hormone at age 20, 200 micrograms at age 40, and 25 micrograms at age 80. At age 40 our growth hormone production is only 40% of what we produced at age 20. The fall in IGF-1 levels with age is identical to the decline of growth hormone.

Scientists do not know why persons over age 40 incur such significant decreases in growth hormone secretion with resulting growth hormone deficiency. Medical research has revealed that the aging pituitary somatotroph cells can still secrete as much growth hormone as the young somatotrophs cells if they are adequately stimulated. This has led researchers to the theory that the reason for the decreases in HGH secretion must lie in the factors that regulate its release. Some research scientists believe the problem lies with somatostatin, the natural inhibitor of growth hormone. Somatostatin has been found to increase with age and may act to block the pituitary’s release of growth hormone. When researchers eliminated somatostatin production in old rats, they found growth hormone secretion as great as those of young rats.

A second theory is that the precursor hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH), which stimulates growth hormone release by the pituitary gland, becomes less sensitive to signals from the hypothalamus. Hence, insufficient GH-RH is released resulting in a decrease of growth hormone secretions over time.

A third theory is that, not only does the growth hormone secreted and available to receptors in our cells decrease with aging, but that the cell receptors become more resistant and less responsive to the growth hormone available. Under this theory, aging can be viewed as a disease of growth hormone resistance within our cell receptors similar to the way in which diabetes is a disease of insulin resistance

Human growth hormone is primarily released in pulses that take place during the beginning phases of sleep. Growth hormone is rapidly converted in the liver to its powerful growth promoting metabolite, Insulin like Growth Factor - Type 1 (IGF-1), also referred to as Somatomedin C. IGF-1 causes most of the effects associated with growth hormone. It is measured in the blood to determine the level of growth hormone secretion. Most of the beneficial effects of human growth hormone are directly attributable to IGF-1. See illustration below.

The decline of growth hormone with age is directly associated with many of the symptoms of aging, including cardiovascular disease, increased body fat, osteoporosis, wrinkling, gray hair, decreased energy, reduced sexual function, and other symptoms. Many of these symptoms have been found in younger adults who have growth hormone deficiency.

Most Importantly, clinical evidence and recent medical research clearly demonstrate that by replacing growth hormone in IGF-1 deficient adults, we can significantly eliminate these symptoms, reverse the biological effects of aging, reduce body fat, increase lean muscle mass, strengthen the immune system, improve sexual performance, lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, restore hair color and growth, increase bone tissue, strengthen the heart and increase energy. There is no other substance known to medical science that has such extensive ability to deter and reverse the aging process.

In reviewing the benefits of growth hormone therapy listed above, it is difficult to believe that growth hormone could have so many beneficial effects. However, as we examine more closely the evidence accumulated by medical research and the interaction between growth hormone and the various bodily systems that affect the areas benefited, we develop an understanding as to how an increased level of growth hormone results in so many beneficial effects.




Benefits of growth hormone treatment on bone metabolism, bone density and bone strength in growth hormone deficiency and osteoporosis.
Issue: January 15, 2001

Wuster C, Harle U, Rehn U, Muller C, Knauf K, Koppler D, Schwabe C, Ziegler R

Department of Internal Medicine I-Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Medical Clinic Heidelberg, Germany.

Bone mass is reduced in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) leading to an increased vertebral fracture rate and clinically significant osteoporosis.Patients with GHD of juvenile onset have reduced skeletal mineralization. When substituting GH in patients with GHD, bone turnover is increased and bone mineral density initially decreases during the first year due to the increase in remodelling space. From the experience in patients with acromegaly, cortical bone mass is increased and trabecular bone mass is normal in eugonadal or decreased in the hypogonadal patients. However, bone mineral content and bone area are increased leading to a higher biomechanical competence of bone as shown in rats. In patients with GHD of juvenile onset, mineralization and bone maturation are achieved during treatment with GH in adult life after having reached final body height leading to an increase in bone mass. The GH/ IGF-I system is dysregulated in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis. This is shown by reduced systemic IGF and IGFBP-3-levels in osteoporosis suggesting a decrease of endogenous GH-secretion or a dysregulation of the GH receptor system which is beyond the normal ageing process of the GH/IGF system, the "somatopause". A premature somatopause may be responsible for the dysregulation in some patients with osteoporosis. However, 24-h GH profiles do not differ between patients suffering from osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. Treatment of osteoporosis with GH might be beneficial due to the increased bone metabolism and improved bone geometry which occurs with GH. The substantial increase of bone remodelling achieved with GH may be helpful during late post-menopause with decreased bone turnover and impaired osteoblastic function. Using GH to prevent physiological bone loss that occurs with age seems possible, but has to be discussed on an ethical and economic basis.

Article provided by National Library of Medicine



A .Human growth hormone (hGH) is a protein-like hormone produced in the anterior portion of the pituitary gland. Virtually every organ and system in the body is dependent on hGH for proper growth, development and function. Human growth hormone is considered by many experts in the field of anti-aging medicine to be the master hormone.
1. There is consistent improvement in this parameter with a usual 10% increase in lean body mass and a 5 to 10% decrease in body fat. Fat loss was greatest in the abdominal region. The alterations in body composition are reversed. The lean body mass increases as the adipose tissue decreases. This accounts for the fact that there may not always be an overall weight loss because of the increased muscle mass. In addition, human growth hormone affects the liver, kidneys, spleen, skin and bone, and is protective against atrophy by causing re-growth of tissue.
2.Growth hormone induces decomposition of adipose tissue.The adipose cell volume will decrease significantly. Metabolism is increased which results in the degradation of fat. In addition, cholesterol is lowered.
3.Growth hormone restores abnormal low levels of extra cellular fluid. This cellular dehydration is implicated in many of the signs of aging. By replenishing this extra cellular water, skin becomes thicker and wrinkles become less noticeable. Also, there is normalization of kidney function and improvement in sweating capacity.
4.During growth hormone therapy, there is a definite improvement in bone density. One study showed an increased bone mass of 2% per year.
5.There is an increase in muscle mass, which accounts for the improved ability 
to exercise with a concomitant increase in strength. There is also an increase in cardiac output. There is an increase in maximum oxygen uptake with a concomitant improvement in cardiac function.

Human growth hormone has been shown in some studies to have side effects, which include carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis and edema. This was experienced only when high doses were given. Numerous studies have shown that side effects can be avoided by slow initial administration, proper monitoring of levels and administration on a daily basis in what is called a low-dose, high frequency method. Some researchers have used growth hormone injections twice daily. Recent research has shown that the majority of naturally produced hGH is pulsed from the pituitary gland at night. This has lead to studies showing that a once a day injection at night seems to have the most beneficial effect.

6.HGH begins to decline gradually at approximately age 25 to 30 (the decline rate has been estimated at about 14% per decade). Research has shown that by the age of 40, our hGH production is down to 50% of youthful levels. By the age of 55 it sinks to 20%, which is not much more than someone in their 80's can produce





Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Therapy
Sermorelin Acetate for Subcutaneous Injection - GH-RH (1-29)

Growth hormone deficiency in adults occurs when the naturally occurring pituitary hormone known as human growth hormone is produced in inadequate quantities with a resulting deficiency in growth hormone and IGF-1 levels. Growth hormone deficiency includes a spectrum that ranges from a complete lack of growth hormone through various degrees of partial growth hormone deficiency.

In contrast to supplementing the growth hormone deficiency through injections of exogenous recombinant human growth hormone (HGH), GH-RH therapy involves the use of GH-RH injections that cause the body’s pituitary gland to secrete greater quantities of naturally produced human growth hormone. The body therefore naturally produces its own growth hormone to supplement the deficiency as a result of GH-RH therapy.

Semorelin is the acetate salt of an amidated synthetic amino acid polypeptide, consisting of the first 29 of 44 amino acids of naturally occurring human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-H). Semorelin acetate is the last of the hypothalmic-releasing hormones to be identified and characterized, and represents the shortest fragment of GH-RH known to possess the full biological activity of the parent hormone.

In contrast to increasing growth hormone levels by the injection of biosynthetic human growth hormone, GH-RH injections increase plasma growth hormone concentrations in patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency by directly stimulating the pituitary gland to release natural human growth hormone. Semorelin acetate for injection (GH-RH ) is similar to natural GH-RH with respect to its ability to stimulate growth hormone secretions in humans.

GH-RH for injection has been effective in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency in children. The clinic anticipates that GH-RH will also be effective in the treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency because it has been effective in the treatment of children, and because HGH has already proven itself to effective in cases of adult growth hormone deficiency. The GH-RH used by the clinic has been studied for 12 years in more than 70 clinical trials in over 2,600 child patients totaling more than 485 patient years of treatment.

Growth hormone releasing hormone for injection was approved for use with children by the FDA in 1997 and became available to the clinic in 1998. It is an experimental clinic treatment with regards to adult patients who are prescribed about half the dose of a small child. Prior clinic approval is required to participate in the adult clinical trial program conducted by the clinic. This therapy has great potential for adults who have growth hormone deficiency and seek to reverse the effects of aging or treat a medical disorder. A patient who is unsatisfied with the results obtained through GH-GH therapy may elect to be treated thereafter with human growth hormone (HGH) replacement therapy.





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